The Surviving Church: Kairos and Eschatology in Paul Tillich and Raimon Panikkar and Postpandemic Ecclesiology




Ecclesiology, Surviving Church, COVID-19, Eschatology, Kairos, Paul Tillich, Raimon Panikkar


This research investigates the relationship between the biblical notion of kairos, eschatology, and ecclesiology amid the struggle for survival in the postpandemic life. Drawing upon Paul Tillich and Raimon Panikkar, this article sketches a postpandemic ecclesiology called “kairotic ecclesiology.” The church must understand that it exists as a community that participates in, loves, and transforms life. Because of its indissoluble relation to history and reality, a kairotic community loves and defends life. This kairotic ecclesiology is an ontological search for the church to say “Yes” to life and “No” to death. Firstly, this article sketches kairos in Tillich and Panikkar. Then, this article sketches what I call the ecclesiology of survival, an ecclesiology characterized by resilience, interrelation, and irruption. Finally, I shall draw ethical implications for postpandemic churches.


Download data is not yet available.


Adomeit, Fynn. “Religious Socialism: Paul Tillich, the Kairos, and the Present Moment.” Tesis, Union Theological Seminary, 2021.

Adiprasetya, Joas. An Imaginative Glimpse: Trinitas dan Agama-agama. Diterjemahkan oleh Hans Harmakaputra. Jakarta: Gunung Mulia, 2018.

Agamben, Giorgio. The Time that Remains: A Commentary on the Letter to the Romans. Terj. Patricia Dailey. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2005. DOI:

Asmara, Alexander Hendra Dwi, S.J. “Gereja sebagai Shelter: Gerakan Shelter COVID-19 sebagai Model Katekese untuk Solidaritas di Masa Pandemi.” Indonesian Journal of Theology 10, no. 1 (Juli 2022): 136–156. DOI:

Battle, Michael. Ubuntu: I in You and You in Me. New York: Seabury, 2009.

Battle, Michael. Reconciliation: The Ubuntu Theology of Desmond Tutu. Edisi revisi. Cleveland: Pilgrim, 2009.

Brueggemann, Walter. Virus as a Summon to Faith. Eugene: Cascade, 2020. Kindle.

Bule’on, C., et al. “Pandemic chain of survival: Gathering strength to revive our societies.” Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine (2020): 547–548. DOI:

Canady, Valerie A. “For nonprofits, survival means being proactive, creative in pandemic wake.” Mental Health Weekly 30, no. 16 (April 2020): 1–6, DOI:

Chorba, Terence. “Social Distancing and Artful Pandemic Survival.” Emerging Infectious Disease 26, no. 11 (November 2020): 2793–2794. DOI:

Cooper, John C. The ‘Spiritual Presence’ in the Theology of Paul Tillich: Tillich’s Use of St. Paul. Macon: Mercer University Press, 1997.

Dallmayr, Fred. Spiritual Guides: Pathfinders in the Desert. South Bend: University of Notre Dame Press, 2017. DOI:

Danker, F.W., ed. A Greek Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Literature. Edisi ke-4. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2021.

Dole, Robert. “My Meeting with Paul Tillich: Estranged and Re-United,” Toronto Journal of Theology 30, no. 2 (2014): 301–306, DOI:

Dunn, James D.G. The Theology of Paul the Apostle. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.

Febrianto dan Abel K. Aruan. “Building Oikopathos: Toward a Pilgrim Youth Movement in the Time of Pandemic.” Dalam Let the Waves Roar: Perspectives of Young Prophetic Voices in the Ecumenical Movement, diedit oleh Joy Eva Bohol dan Benjamin Simon, 77–85. Geneva: WCC, 2021.

Joseph, J.M.X. Gnanadhas. “The Threefold Structure of Human Time-Consciousness according to Raimon Panikkar.” Dalam Everything is Interrelated: Christian Theology and Hindu Advaita as Experienced by Raimundo Panikkar and Francis D’sa SJ, diedit oleh Kuruvilla Pandikattu SJ, 27–32. New Delhi: ISPCK, 2019.

Kittel, Gerhard dan Gerhard Friedrich, ed. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Abridged Edition. Terj. G.W. Bromiley. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985.

MacWelch, Tim dan Joseph Pred. The Essential Pandemic Survival Guide. Richmond: Weldon Owen International, 2020.

Maniuk, Tetyana, et al. “Beyond Survival: Practical Wellness Tips during the 2019 Coronavirus Disease Pandemic.” Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine 22, no. 5 (2020): 579–583. DOI:

Menacherry, Cheriyan. “Logos, Mythos, Pneuma to Mysterion: Dialogical Philosophy of Panikkar.” Dalam Raimon Panikkar: Being Beyond Borders—A Commemorative Volume, diedit oleh Johnson J. Puthenpurackal, 316–336. Bangalore: ACPI, 2012.

Panikkar, Raymond. The Unknown of Hinduism. London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1964.

Panikkar, Raimundo. Worship and Secular Man. Maryknoll: Orbis, 1973.

Panikkar, Raimundo. The Unknown Christ of Hinduism. Edisi revisi. Maryknoll: Orbis, 1981.

Panikkar, Raimon. Invisible Harmony: Essays on Contemplation and Responsibility. Maryknoll: Orbis, 1995.

Panikkar, Raimon. The Rhythm of Being: The Gifford Lectures. Maryknoll: Orbis, 2010.

Panikkar, Raimon. Sacred Secularity, Opera Omnia vol. 11. Maryknoll: Orbis, 2022.

Panthanmackel, George. “The Notion of Reality: The Vision of Panikkar.” Dalam Raimon Panikkar: Being Beyond Borders—A Commemorative Volume, diedit oleh Johnson J. Puthenpurackal, 91–107. Bangalore: ACPI, 2012.

Parrella, Frederick, J., ed., Paul Tillich’s Theological Legacy: Spirit and Community. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1995.

Phan, Peter C. “Raimon Panikkar’s ‘Eschatology’: The Unpublished Chapter.” Dalam Raimon Panikkar: A Companion to His Life and Thought, diedit oleh Peter C. Phan dan Young-Chan Ro, 242–257. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co., 2018. DOI:

Sasongko, Nindyo. “The Depth of Unknowing: Or, How to (Un)know God according to Pseudo-Dionysius and Raimon Panikkar,” Indonesia Journal of Theology 2, no. 2 (Desember 2014), 100–118, DOI:

Stone, Ronald H. “Tillich’s Kairos and Its Trajectory.” Dalam Why Tillich? Why Now, diedit oleh Thomas G. Bandy, 295–306. Macon: Mercer University Press, 2021.

Subramanian, S.V., Pritha Chatterjee, dan Omar Karlsson. “Lessons from COVID-19 Pandemic for the Child Survival Agenda,” Journal of Global Health 10, no. 2 (2020): 1–3. DOI:

Taxacher, Gregor. “Messianische Geschichte: Kairos und Chronos Giorgio Agambens Paulus-Auslegung weiter gedacht.” Evangelische Theologie 70, no. 3 (2010): 217–233. DOI:

Tillich, Paul. “Kairos – Theonomie – das Dämonische. Ein Brief zu Eduard Heimanns 70. Geburtstag.” Dalam Gesammelte Werk: Band 12: Begegnungen, diedit oleh Renate Albrecht, 310–315. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012. DOI:

Tillich, Paul. “Kairos und Utopie.” Zeitschrift für Evangelische Ethik 3, no. 1 (1959): 325–331. DOI:

Tillich, Paul. Paul Tillich: Theologian on the Boundaries. Diedit oleh Mark K. Taylor. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991.

Tillich, Paul. Systematic Theology. Volume 3. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.

Tillich, Paul. The Eternal Now. New York: Scribners, 1963.

Tillich, Paul. The Courage to Be. Third edition. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014.

Tosone, Carol, ed. Shared Trauma, Shared Resilience During a Pandemic: Social Work in the Time of COVID-19. Cham: Springer, 2021. DOI:

Warheit, Jean-Claude. “Wahrheit und Kairos beim frühen Tillich.” Dalam God and Being/Gott und Sein, diedit oleh Gert Hummel, 211–222. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1989. DOI:

Weaver, Matthew Lon. “Peacemaking on the Boundary.” Dalam Retrieving the Radical Tillich: His Legacy and Contemporary Importance, diedit oleh Russell Re Manning, 99–110. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2015. DOI:

Wright, N.T. God and the Pandemic: A Christian Reflection on the Coronavirus and Its Aftermath. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2020. Kindle. DOI:

Wright, N.T. Paul and the Faithfulness of God. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2013.



How to Cite

Sasongko, Nindyo. “The Surviving Church: Kairos and Eschatology in Paul Tillich and Raimon Panikkar and Postpandemic Ecclesiology”. Veritas: Jurnal Teologi dan Pelayanan 21, no. 2 (December 31, 2022): 161–178. Accessed March 23, 2023.



Special Collection Academic Symposium 2022: (Re)Imagining the Future Church