Allah versus Setan Laplace: Sebuah Usulan Konsep Tindakan Ilahi Khusus yang Trinitarian, Kovenantal dan Saintifik

God versus Laplace’s Demon: A Proposal for Trinitarian, Covenantal and Scientific Special Divine Action Concept

Keywords: Divine Action Project, NIODA, QM-NIODA, Titik Temu Kausal, Tindakan Ilahi Khusus, Indeterminisme, Inkompatibilisme, Nonintervensionis, Setan Laplace, Hukum Alam, Mekanika Kuantum, Transenden, Imanen, Teologi Penciptaan yang Trinitarian-Kovenantal, Causal Joint, Special Divine Action, Indeterminism, Incompatibilism, Noninterventionist, Laplace Demon, Quantum Mechanics, Transendence, Immanence, Trinitarian-Covenantal Theology of Creation, Laws of Nature

Abstract

Dalam dekade terakhir, interaksi sains dan teologi dalam upaya membangun konsep tindakan ilahi di dalam dunia natural telah sampai pada satu kesimpulan untuk mencari titik temu kausal di mana Allah Pencipta yang transenden dan nonfisik dapat bertindak di dalam proses-proses natural yang terjadi di dalam dunia ciptaan. Sebuah gerakan akademis yang diakui kredibilitasnya dalam usaha menemukan titik temu kausal dengan cara-cara baru yang memasukkan penafsiran filosofis dari sains kekinian ke dalam teologi adalah Divine Action Project (DAP), yang merumuskan sebuah teori tindakan ilahi yang disebut NIODA (Noninterventionist Objective Divine Action). NIODA berusaha mencari lokus tindakan ilahi khusus yang tidak bertentangan dengan hukum alam yaitu di dalam proses-proses fisik yang dapat ditafsirkan sebagai indeterminisme secara ontologis, seperti mekanika kuantum. Tulisan ini akan mengkaji asumsi-asumsi filosofis di balik NIODA dan memperlihatkan bahwa konsep ini dapat diterima secara saintifik namun tidak memadai secara teologis karena masih terikat dengan asumsi Laplace warisan zaman pencerahan yang menganggap alam semesta ini tertutup secara kausal bagi tindakan ilahi. Karena itu, di bagian terakhir, tulisan ini juga akan mengusulkan beberapa poin penting dalam upaya membangun sebuah konsep tindakan ilahi yang memadai secara teologis maupun saintifik, yang dibangun di atas fondasi teologi penciptaan yang trinitarian dan kovenantal.

In the last decade, the interaction between science and theology in the effort to develop the concept of divine action in the natural world has come to a conclusion to find a causal joint where transcendent and nonphysical Creator God can act in natural processes that occur in the world of creation. An academic movement whose credibility has been recognized in its efforts to find a causal joint in new ways that incorporate philosophical interpretations of contemporary science into theology is the Divine Action Project (DAP), which formulates a concept of divine action called NIODA (Noninterventionist Objective Divine Action). NIODA seeks to find a locus of special divine action that does not conflict with laws of nature in physical processes that can be interpreted as ontological indeterminism, such as quantum mechanics. This paper will examine the philosophical assumptions behind NIODA and show that this concept is scientifically acceptable but not theologically adequate because it is still bound by Laplace's assumption of the enlightenment's legacy which considers the universe to be causally closed to divine action. Therefore, in the last part, this paper will also propose several important points in the effort to develop a concept of special divine action that is both theologically and scientifically adequate, built on the basis of a trinitarian and covenantal biblical theology of creation.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Aczel, Amir D. Why Science Does Not Disprove God? New York: William Morrow/Harper-Collins, 2014.

Calvin, John. Institutes of the Christian Religion. Vol. 1. Diedit oleh John T. McNeil. Diterjemahkan oleh Ford Lewis Battles. Louisville: WJK, 2006.

Clayton, Philip. “Wildman’s Kantian Skepticism: A Rubicon for the Divine Action Debate.” Theology and Science 2, no. 2 (2004): 186-190.

Brooke, John Hedley. “Divine Providence in the Clockwork Universe.” Dalam Abraham’s Dice : Chance and Providence in the Monotheistic Traditions, diedit oleh Karl W. Giberson, 215-239. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Cross, Simon J.S. “Perspectives on Divine Action: Reflections on the Theological Legitimacy of Approaches to Divine Action in the V.O./C.T.N.S. Series ‘Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action’.” Disertasi, University of Oxford, 2017.

Dodds, Michael J. Unlocking Divine Action. Washington: The Catholic University of America Press, 2017.

Gregersen, Niels Henrik. “Divine Action and the Quilt of Laws: Why the Distinction between General and Special Divine Action Cannot Be Maintained.” Dalam Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action: Twenty Years of Challenge and Progress, diedit oleh Robert J. Russell, Nancey Murphy, dan William R. Stoeger, 179-200. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2008.

Harrison, Peter. “Voluntarism and Early Modern Science.” History of Science 40, no. 1 (2002): 63-89.

Jacobs, Andrew. “The Creative Power of the Future: Wolfhart Pannenberg, Modern Science, and the Metaphysics of Divine Action.” Disertasi, Fordham University, 2009.

Jaeger, Lydia. “Against Physicalism-plus-God: How Creation Accounts for Divine Action in the World.” Faith and Philosophy 29, no. 3 (2012): 295-312.

Jones, Kile. “Falsifiability and Traction in Theories of Divine Action.” Zygon 45, no. 3 (2010): 575–589.

Kim, Junghyung. “Toward A Comprehensive Theology of Divine Action.” Theology and Science 10, no. 1 (2012): 95-101.

Koperski, Jeffrey. The Physics of Theism: God, Physics and The Philosophy of Science. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2015.

Koperski, Jeffrey. “The Quantum Amplification Problem Appears to Be Unsolvable.” Theology and Science 13, no. 4 (2015): 378-393.

Koperski, Jeffrey. Divine Action, Determinism and the Laws of Nature. London and New York: Routledge, 2020.

Laplace, Pierre-Simon. A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities. London: John Wiley and Sons, 1902.

Lighthill, James. “The Recently Recognized Failure of Predictability in Newtonian Dynamics.” Dalam Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 407 (1986): 35-50.

Mackie, John L. The Miracle of Theism: Arguments for and against the Existence of God. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Morris, Tim dan Don Petcher. Science and Grace: God’s Reign in the Natural Sciences. Wheaton: Crossway, 2006.

Newton, Isaac. Opticks. 1730. Reprint, New York: Dover, 1952.

Plantinga, Alvin. Where The Conflict Really Lies: Science, Religion, and Naturalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Poe, Harry Lee, dan Jimmy H. Davis. God and the Cosmos: Divine Activity in Space, Time and History. Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2012.

Polkinghorne, John C. “Chaos Theory and Divine Action.” Dalam Religion and Science: History, Method, Dialogue, diedit oleh Mark W. Richardson dan Wesley J. Wildman, 243-254. New York: Routledge, 1996.

Poythress, Vern S. “Why Scientist Must Believe in God: Divine Attributes of Scientific Law.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 46, no. 1 (2003): 111-123.

Ritchie, Sarah Lane. “Dancing Around the Causal Joint: Challenging the Theological Turn in Divine Action Theories.” Zygon 52, no. 2 (2017): 361-379.

Ritchie, Sarah Lane. Divine Action and the Human Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.

Russell, Robert John. Cosmology: From Alpha to Omega. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2008.

Ritchie, Sarah Lane. “Challenge and Progress In ‘Theology And Science’: An Overview Of The CTNS/VO Series.” Dalam Philosophy, Science and Divine Action, diedit oleh F. Leron Shults, Nancey Murphy, dan Robert J. Russell, 407-426. Leiden: Brill, 2009.

Ritchie, Sarah Lane. “Quantum Physics and the Theology of Non-Interventionist Objective Divine Action.” Dalam The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Science, diedit oleh Philip Clayton dan Zachary Simpson, 579-595. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Saunders, Nicholas. Divine Action and Modern Science. Cambridge: Cam-bridge University Press, 2002.

Saunders, Nicholas. “Does God Cheat at Dice? Divine Action and Quantum Possibilities.” Zygon 35, no. 3 (2000): 517-544.

Smedes, Taede A. “Beyond Barbour or Back to Basics? The Future of Science-and-Religion and the Quest for Unity.” Zygon 43, no. 1 (2008): 235-258.

Sober, Elliott. “Why Methodological Naturalism?” Dalam Biological Evolution: Facts and Theories: A Critical Appraisal 150 Years After the Origin of Species, diedit oleh G. Auletta, M. Leclerc, dan R. A. Martinez, 359-378. Roma: Gregorian and Biblical Press, 2011.

Stoeger, William. “Epistemological and Ontological Issues Arising from Quantum Theory.” Dalam Quantum Mechanics: Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action, diedit oleh Robert John Russell, Philip Clayton, K. Wegter-McNelly, dan John C. Polkinghorne, 81-98. Vatican City: Vatican Observatory Publication, 2001.

Tracy, Thomas. “Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action? Mapping the Options.” Theology and Science 2, no. 2 (2004): 196-201.

VanDrunen, David. Divine Covenants and Moral Order: A Biblical Theology of Natural Law. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2014.

Wildman, Wesley J. “Robert John Russell’s Theology of God’s Action.” Dalam God’s Action in Nature’s World, diedit oleh Ted Peters dan Nathan Hallanger, 147-170. New York: Routledge, 2016.

Wildman, Wesley J. “The Divine Action Project, 1988-2003.” Theology and Science 2, no. 1 (2004): 31-75.

Wilson, Mark. “Critical Notice: John Earman’s A Primer on Determinism.” Philosophy of Science 56, no. 3 (1989): 502-532.

Wright, Christopher J.H. Knowing the Holy Spirit Through the Old Testament. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2006.

Published
2020-05-18
How to Cite
Alinurdin, David. “Allah Versus Setan Laplace: Sebuah Usulan Konsep Tindakan Ilahi Khusus Yang Trinitarian, Kovenantal Dan Saintifik”. Veritas: Jurnal Teologi dan Pelayanan 19, no. 1 (May 18, 2020): 25-49. Accessed October 30, 2020. https://ojs.seabs.ac.id/index.php/Veritas/article/view/340.
Section
Articles