Bilangan 5:11–31: Ritual Sotah sebagai Terobosan Budaya di Timur Tengah Kuno
Keywords:Bilangan 5:11–31, Sotah, Zina, Timur Dekat Kuno, Seksisme, Numbers 5:11–31, Adultery, Ancient Near East, Sexism
Numbers 5:11–31: Sotah as a Cultural Breakthrough in the Ancient Near East.
Numbers 5:11–31 could be interpreted as a kind of sexism and repression to women. In the Mishnaic tradition, the passages indeed are being understood and developed in such a manner. From tractate Sotah in Mishnah, the suspected adulterous wife indeed is ashamed and treated as a prostitute. This article seeks to present another perspective on the passage. This article uses the sociological study method to identify the sociological problems alleged against the passage based on the explanation of the Sotah tractate in the Mishnah. Afterward, the inferior position of women in the ancient Near East will be explained as a cultural context to understand the passage better. Finally, considering this cultural context and comparing the Sotah ritual with the common rituals in the ancient Near East, this article argues that Numbers 5:11–31 could be seen as a cultural breakthrough to protect women, which are considered marginalized.
Alpert, Rebecca T. “The Sotah Revisited.” The Reconstructionist 53 (1988): 32–33.
Amzallag, Nissim dan Yona, Shamir. “The Kenite Origin of the Sotah Prescription (Numbers 5.11-31).” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 41 no 4 (2017): 383–412. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0309089216661176
Ashley, Timothy R. The Book of Numbers. NICOT. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993.
Biale, Rachel. Women and Jewish Law: An Exploration of Women’s Issues in Halakhic Sources. New York: Schocken, 1984.
Brichto, Herbert Chanan. “Case of the Sota and a Reconsideration of Biblical ‘Law’.” Hebrew Union College Annual 46 (1975): 55–70.
Briggs, Richard S. “Reading the Sotah Text (Numbers 5:11-31): Holiness and a Hermeneutic Fit for Suspicion,” Biblical Interpretation 17, no. 3 (2009): 288–319. https://doi.org/10.1163/156851508X329665. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/156851508X329665
Brown, Francis, S.R. Driver dan Charles A. Briggs. The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1994.
Clines, David J.A. Dictionary of Classical Hebrew. 9 Vol. Edisi revisi. Sheffield Academic Press, 2016.
Fishbane, Michael. “Accusations of Adultery: A Study of Law and Scribal Practice in Numbers 5:11–31.” Hebrew Union College Annual 45 (1974): 25–45.
Gruschcow, Lisa. Writing the Wayward Wife: Rabbinic Interpretations of Sotah, Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity 62. Leiden: Brill, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789047417811. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789047417811
Hauptman, Judith. Rereading the Rabbis: A Woman’s Voice. New York: Routledge, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429497650
Pritchard, James B., ed. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969.
Pritchard, James B., ed. The Ancient Near East: An Anthology of Texts and Pictures. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1958.
Budd, Philip J. Numbers. Vol. 5. WBC. Waco: Word, 1984.
Danby, H., ed. The Mishnah. London: Oxford University Press, 1933.
Driver, G.R. “Two Problems in the Old Testament Examined in the Light of Archaeology” T. 33 Fasc. 1/2. Syria (1956): 73–77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/syria.1956.5184
Harper, Robert Francis. The Code of Hammurabi: King of Babylon about 2250 B.C. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1904. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/369501
Levine, Baruch. Numbers 1–20: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. Anchor Bible Commentary. New York: Yale University Press, 1993. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5040/9780300262087
MacDonald, Elizabeth Mary. The Position of Women as Reflected in Semitic Codes of Law. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1931.
Marsman, Hennie J. Women in Ugarit and Israel: Their Social and Religious Position in the Context of the Ancient Near East. Leiden: Brill, 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004493407
Rosen-Zvi, Ishay. The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash. Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism. Leiden: Brill, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004227989
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Steven Yong
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.