Tinjauan Kritis-Multifaset Terhadap Tuduhan Genosida Atas Catatan Penaklukan Kuno Tanah Perjanjian

Critical-Multifaceted Review Against Genocide Allegations of Ancient Conquest Account of the Promised Land

Keywords: Genosida, Genosida Bangsa Kanaan, Perjanjian Lama, Catatan Penaklukan Kuno, Perang Timur Dekat Kuno, Monster Moral, Ateisme Baru, Kekerasan dalam Alkitab, Apologetika, Genocide, Canaanite Genocide, Old Testament, Ancient Conquest Account, Ancient Near Eastern War, Moral Monster, New Atheism, Violence in the Bible, Apologetics

Abstract

Tujuan dari artikel ini adalah untuk menyajikan suatu tinjauan kritis-multifaset terhadap tuduhan bahwa Allah Yudeo-Kristen telah memerintahkan genosida kepada bangsa Israel dalam penaklukan Tanah Perjanjian. Sehubungan dengan itu, penulis mencoba memikirkan ulang apa yang dipersoalkan secara esensial dalam tuduhan tersebut dan membedah tuduhan tersebut dalam tiga faset meliputi faset terminologi hukum, penafsiran, dan moral-filosofis. Dengan menganalisis kriteria genosida di dalam hukum internasional, penulis berargumen bahwa catatan penaklukan kuno Tanah Perjanjian di Perjanjian Lama tidak memenuhi kriteria ini sehingga penaklukan ini secara keliru telah diklasifikasikan sebagai genosida. Penulis juga mengumpulkan beberapa contoh kekeliruan penafsiran terhadap catatan penaklukan Tanah Perjanjian. Penulis menyetujui bahwa bahasa figuratif-hiperbol merupakan sebuah perangkat sastra yang umum dalam catatan penaklukan kuno dan ideologi perang dipandang sebagai penghukuman ilahi dalam pandangan dunia Timur Dekat Kuno. Kemudian, penulis mengambil Yosua 9-11 sebagai sebuah studi kasus biblikal untuk menunjukkan jurang sejarah-budaya antara konteks Timur Dekat Kuno dari catatan penaklukan dengan konteks kekinian kita. Pada faset terakhir, penulis secara ringkas berargumen bahwa ada pendekatan yang lebih kontekstual yang berdasarkan argumen moral teistik ketimbang tuduhan kaum Ateis Baru.

The purpose of this article is to deliver a critical-multifaceted review against the accusation that the Judeo-Christian God has commanded genocide to Israelites in the conquest of the Promised Land. Correspondingly, I try to reconsider what matters essentially in the accusation and dissect the accusation into three facets, included legal terminology, interpretive and moral-philosophical facets. By analyzing the criteria of genocide in international law, I argue that the ancient conquest account of the Promised Land in Old Testament dissatisfies these criteria, thus the conquest was incorrectly classified as genocide. I also gather some examples of misinterpretation of the conquest account of the promised land. I agree that the figurative-hyperbolic language as a common literary feature in the ancient conquest account and the ideology of war viewed as the divine retribution in ancient near eastern worldview. Then, I take Joshua chapters 9-11 as a biblical case study to demonstrate historical-cultural gaps between the ancient near eastern context of the conquest account and our present context. In the last facet, I tersely argue that there is a more contextual approach based on theistic moral argument instead of the New Atheist accusation.

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Published
2019-11-28
How to Cite
Yohanes, Hendra. “Tinjauan Kritis-Multifaset Terhadap Tuduhan Genosida Atas Catatan Penaklukan Kuno Tanah Perjanjian”. Veritas: Jurnal Teologi dan Pelayanan 18, no. 2 (November 28, 2019): 107-123. Accessed July 4, 2020. https://ojs.seabs.ac.id/index.php/Veritas/article/view/332.
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Articles