Dari Teodisi dan Antropodisi Menuju Teo-antropodisi: Mengasihi Allah dan Sesama di Tengah Pandemi COVID-19

From Theodicy and Anthropodicy to Theo-anthropodicy: Loving God and Loving Others Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic

  • Tony Wiyaret Fangidae Sekolah Tinggi Filsafat Theologi Jakarta
Keywords: Teodisi, Antropodisi, Teodisi Etis, Teo-antropodisi, Leibniz, Sontag, Levinas, COVID-19, Penderitaan, Theodicy, Anthropodicy, Ethical Theodicy, Theo-anthropodicy, Suffering

Abstract

Penderitaan merupakan realitas yang tak terelakkan. Kali ini, dunia berhadapan dengan pandemi COVID-19 yang menyebabkan penderitaan di beberapa aspek kehidupan manusia seperti kesehatan, sosial, ekonomi, psikologis, hingga religius. Polemik ini menghantar kita pada diskusi seputar teodisi. Teodisi merupakan paradigma yang digunakan Leibniz untuk membela kemahabaikan dan kemahakuasaan Allah di hadapan realitas penderitaan, tetapi teodisi cenderung berhenti pada ranah teori tanpa praktik. Sontag mengusung paradigma antropodisi dalam wujud solidaritas sosial yang mengedepankan praktik untuk mengkritik teodisi yang terlampau abstrak dalam membela Allah tanpa mempedulikan penderitaan manusia. Antropodisi tampaknya terlalu sosialis dan cenderung berpegang pada kemampuan manusia, sehingga mengeksklusi aspek religius dalam solidaritas sosial. Levinas merespons kegelisahan ini dengan mengusung teodisi etis. Paradigma teodisi etis digunakan Levinas untuk memperlihatkan kehadiran Allah melalui manusia yang bertanggung jawab terhadap penderitaan sesamanya. Artikel ini mengusulkan nama, pemaknaan, dan pengembangan baru terhadap teodisi etis, yaitu teo-antropodisi. Teo-antropodisi merupakan paradigma yang merangkul teodisi sekaligus antropodisi. Teo-antropodisi berusaha membuktikan kasih Allah bukan dengan pembelaan ala Leibniz yang melulu berteori atau bukan semata-mata solidaritas sosial ala Sontag yang mengedepankan praktik. Teo-antropodisi mengorelasikan teori dan praktik tersebut sama seperti iman (teodisi), tanpa perbuatan (antropodisi) adalah mati. Teo-antropodisi berfondasikan prinsip “mengasihi Allah dengan segenap hati, jiwa dan akal budi” serta “mengasihi sesama manusia seperti diri sendiri.”

Suffering is an inevitable reality. This time, the world is dealing with a COVID-19 pandemic that causes suffering in several aspects of human life such as health, social, economic, psychological, and religious. This polemic leads us to a discussion around theodicy. Theodicy is a paradigm Leibniz used to defend God's benevolence and omnipotence in front of the reality of suffering, but the theories tend to stop in the realm of theory without practice. Sontag carries the paradigm of anthropodicy in the form of social solidarity that promotes the practice of criticizing the overly abstract theodicy in defense of God regardless of human suffering. Anthropodicy seems to be too socialist and tend to hold on to human abilities, thus excluding the religious aspect in social solidarity. Levinas responded to this anxiety by carrying an ethical theodicy. The ethical theodicy paradigm is used by Levinas to demonstrate God's presence through humans who took responsibility for alleviating the suffering of his neighbor. This article proposes a new name, meaning, and development of ethical theodicy, namely theo-anthropodicy. Theo-anthropodicy is a paradigm that embraces both theodicy as well as anthropodicy. Theo-anthropodicy seeks to prove God's love neither with Leibniz-style defenses that merely theorize nor with Sontag-style social solidarity that merely promotes practices. Theo-anthropodicy correlates these theories and practices in the same way that faith (theodicy), without action (anthropodicy) is dead. Theo-anthropodicy is  based on the principles of "loving God with all your heart, soul and mind" and "loving others as yourself."

 

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Published
2020-11-13
How to Cite
Fangidae, Tony. “Dari Teodisi Dan Antropodisi Menuju Teo-Antropodisi: Mengasihi Allah Dan Sesama Di Tengah Pandemi COVID-19”. Veritas: Jurnal Teologi dan Pelayanan 19, no. 2 (November 13, 2020): 151-168. Accessed November 27, 2020. https://ojs.seabs.ac.id/index.php/Veritas/article/view/372.
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Articles